Group Activity 1
Preparation Group Activity1
Elements Summaries

Preparation Group Activity1 

Preparation Group Activity1

Elements Summaries 

Group1- Cobalt

Group2- Nickel

Group3- Beryllium

Group4- Gold

Group5- Silver

Group6- Chromium

Group7- Copper

Group8- Lead

Group9- Cadmium

Group10- Aluminum

Group11- Platinum

Group12- Molybdenum

Group13- Tin

Group14- Zinc

Group15- Mercury

Cobalt (Jeff Hair) 

Through minimal research I was able to find that the atomic number for Cobalt is 27. This means that there are 27 protons in the nucleus of this atom; and since the atomic weight of Cobalt is 58.933, there are 31 neutrons. The electron structure is as follows, [Ar]3d74s2. On average, Cobalt makes up .002% of the Earth's crust, however it is very spread out in its distribution. Until recently, Cobalt was mainly produced in African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. Now, Australia has begun to increase its production causing Africa to decrease its production by 50%. The annual production of Cobalt is right around 41,650 tons.

Cobalt is usually mined as a by-product of all the precious metal mining in South Africa. Although there are many locations that can be used to mine for Cobalt, it is not generally the target element. The United States doesn't take part in the mining or refining of this element, however there are locations in Canada where Cobalt is both mined and refined. The worldwide production of Cobalt is on an upward swing as of 1999 when a new refinery was opened in Morocco.

I was not able to find a conversion chart to know how many pounds are in a kilogram, but the highest grade Cobalt is $23/lb. and the lowest grade Cobalt is $21/lb. If I were able to control all production of the element, it would have massive effects on the world economy. If it is between $21 and $23 per lb. for all forms of Cobalt and on average 41,650 tons of Cobalt are produced each year, it is easy to see how large this market actually is. 41650*2000*21= $1,749,300,000/yr., thus Cobalt is an almost $2 billion per year industry for just the lowest grade.

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Nickel (Corrie Hannah) 

First discovered by Alex Constedt in 1751, nickel (Ni) is a highly polished, silvery white metal that belongs to the iron group. Its atomic number is 28 and contains 31 neutrons. Among the 10 nickel isotopes, with 68.077%$ abundance, the most abundant is 58-Ni. Nickel is hard, malleable, and ductile. It is generally found in the earth's core and oceanic crust, but can also be traced in meteorites. Some isotopes have been used to date the terrestrial age of meteorites and determine the abundances of extraterrestrial dust in ice and sediment, as well as provide insights into the origin of the solar system and its early history.

Nickel is mined from two types of ore deposits: (60%) laterites and (40%) magmatic sulfide deposits. The principle ore minerals found in laterites deposits are nickeliferous limonite and garnierite. The principle ore mineral found in magmatic sulfide is pentlandite. These minerals allow nickel to be economically mined. Though not commonly mined in the United States (there were no active mines in 2004), limited amounts of nickel have been recovered in the Western United States. The primary producer of nickel comes from the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, which produces about 30% of the world's supply of nickel. Other deposits are found in Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, and Indonesia. Though discovered in 1751, nickel use is traced back as far as 3500 BC. Bronzes from Syria contained 2% nickel content and Chinese manuscripts also denote a "white copper" used in Orient between 1400 and 1700 BC. As time progressed, minerals containing nickel were valued for coloring glass green. By 1971, Constedt attempted to extract copper from what is now known as niccolite, and instead obtained a white metal he called nickel. Now about 65% of nickel is consumed in the Western World for authentic stainless steel, another 12% for super alloys, and the remaining 23% is divided into the production of alloy steels, rechargeable batteries, catalysts, coinage, foundry products, planting. A strong world economic growth in the mid-nineties increased nickel capacity, which resulted in a 30% increase of nickel production in the five years from 1993 to 1998. World mine production reached an all-time high in 2004. Since 1950 the production in the Western World has been increasing at an average rate of 6% per year. According to the London Metal Exchange the recent price of nickel for 2004 was $13,843 per metric ton, and the lowest grade mined is nickel oxide.

Some applications for nickel include armor plates, burglar-proof vaults, magnets, ship propellers, kitchen supplies, robotics, rechargeable batteries, coinage (5 cent nickel in the US), electroplating, jewelry, vegetable oils, chocolate fats, detergents etc. It is usually found in common metal products such as jewelry and steel alloy metals. Humans are exposed to nickel by breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or smoking cigarettes. Exposure to nickel results from skin contact with soil or water, and high exposure can cause dangers to human health. Increased exposure can cause higher chances of developing lung, nose, larynx, or prostate cancers, respiratory failure, birth defects, asthma, skin rashes (from jewelry), heart disorders, and so on. Nickel fumes can also cause pneumonitis. Nickel compounds are released into the air by power plants and trash incinerators, and also may settle into surface water in wastewater streams. This can be harmful to the environment. Usual compounds released into the environment will absorb into sediment particles and will become immobile. Nickel concentration on sandy soils can damage plants and diminish algae growth rates. Nickel is not known to accumulate in plants or animals, and most microorganisms will develop a resistance to nickel over time.

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Berrylium (Jordan Johnson) 

Beryllium is a relatively rare metal with an atomic number of 4. It has 5 neutrons. It is found in 30 mineral species, most importantly bertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl and phenacite. Aquamarines and emerald are the precious forms of beryl.

About 330,000 tons of beryllium are produced each year. The U.S. is by far the greatest producer of beryllium. Other nations who mine it include China, Kazakhstan, and Russia. The mines in the U.S. are in Utah, and it is processed in Reading, Pa. The price is approximately 72 dollars a kg.

It is used in a lot of high tech machines. It is one of the lightest structural materials and is highly conductive. It is used in electronic, automobile air bags, missiles, the space shuttle, and communication satellites. It is dangerous to be inhaled, and causes lung and skin disease.

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Gold (Melissa Lewis) 

Gold is number 79 on the periodic table, has 118 neutrons, and an electron configuration of [Xe]4f^145d^106s^1. The approximate crustal abundance is 4x10^-3 milligrams per kilogram, with an approximate oceanic abundance of 4x10^-6 milligrams per liter. It is found in pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, with more common sources in quartz, black shale, and limestone. Roughly 1 billion troy oz of gold is produced each year. Nearly 2/3 of the world's gold comes from South Africa, with significant amounts in the U.S. as well. Panning is the simplest way of mining gold, though open pit is often used as well. Gold grades may be as minimal as .5 g/1000kg.

Gold has been used at a form or currency for centuries, as well as being used for ornamental properties. By 1910 an estimated 75% of all the world's gold and already been mined and or refined. Many banks today still keep gold in reserve, with the largest deposit in the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, although most countries no longer circulate it as currency. Gold's value has constantly changed through history, becoming more valuable in times of economic struggle.

Gold is used in a variety of ways. Gold flakes are sometimes added to gourmet desserts for decoration. Gold is used in jewelry, space satellites, and dental work. One particular isotope, gold-198 is used for treating cancer. There is a slight health risk involved in the mining/refining of gold, as mercury is used to isolate the gold from surrounding rocks and minerals; by itself, gold causes no health problems. Electrolysis is a environmentally safe substitute for mercury.

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Copper (James Saunders) 

Copper is a transition metal of reddish-orange color, which by nature is highly malleable and an excellent conductor of electricity. The most common and stable isotope, Copper-63, has 34 neutrons and the electron configuration 1s^2 2s^2 p^6 3s^2 p^6 d^10 4s^1 . Seldom found in large pure deposits, Copper is generally found in sulfides (chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite) or oxides (cuprite, malachite, azurite).

Copper occurs naturally in the Earth's crust in geographics areas such as mid-oceananic ridges and back-arc basins. Ninety percent of copper ore is extracted using open-pit mines, and the other ten percent either by underground shaft mines or chemical leaching with sulphuric acid. As of 1990, over 9 million metric tons of copper were annually produced worldwide, with Chile leading and United States a close second in production (the USSR and Canada came next). Today the demand for copper is on the rise, particularly in Asia and especially China, where architectural and informational development is presently rapid. The United States is quite self-sufficient in copper production, with concentrations of mining in Arizona, California, Utah, Kentucky/Tennessee, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; and is a major supplier to China.

Environmental issues do exist with copper, largely because of the waste products and pollution that is inevitable with mining. A large sum of waste sulphur is introduced into the environment as a result of the mining/purification process, and the displacement of land in a mining operation can have a significant impact on the local ecosystem. Also, large amounts of copper exposure causes health problems in humans - the affected organs being the eyes, skin, and internal organs including the kidneys.

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Chromium (Laura Reeder) 

For Friday's group activity my group researched information on the element chromium. The discussion started off with everyone explaining what kind of information they had acquired on the web. Our group found more on the general information about Chromium than what was needed for the questions. I then presented more information that I had found on the web to help them get started on their questions. Throughout the discussion the group seemed to focus on the questions relating to Chromium and how it plays a key role in the world today with its unlimited about of uses. For example, Chromium is a major resource for the United States as it is used many different uses such as manufacture stainless steel to being one of the top selling supplements in the United States.

Chromium has an atomic number of 24 and is found in the Earth's crust which can come from large deposits Orthomagmatic deposits occurring 2000 millions years ago. Chromium is not found as a free metal in nature but as important ore in Chromite. This metal is located all over the World from North and South America to the Middle East and Africa. Due to advances in technology Chromite ore has become a usable resource that has contributed to Chromium's importance. Unlike other metal, Chromium deposits are at random providing no specific patterns and comes in various sizes and shapes.

In the conclusion of our discussion, we looked at Chromium's roles in health and the environment. Chromium is a friend to the environment by its necessary uses in soil, and proper human and animal development, but like anything in life to much Chromium can be a problem. After researching and answering the question we realized the important and functions of Chromium.

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Lead (Brittany Scott) 

The atomic number for Lead is 82. The electron structure of Lead consists of 6 energy; 2 in the first, 8 in the second, 18 in the third, 32 in the fourth, 18 in the fifth, and 4 in the sixth. Lead only makes up about .0013% of the earth?s crust, making it the 36th most abundant element in the earth?s crust. Materials made from Lead are facilitating the development of hyper fast computers and high definition TV, as well as cathode ray tubes used in viewing screens for television, computers and radar. Lead is also commonly used for car batteries. A common illness caused by Lead is Lead poisoning. Today, Lead is the number one environmentally induced illness in children. If Lead production was increased or decreased it would affect our economy in that more or less technology could be created.

Lead is obtained from galena by a roasting process. In bulk, Lead costs approximately .077$ per 100 grams and in it?s pure state, about 1.5 $ per 100 grams. Currently Australia, the United States and the former Soviet Union are the chief producers of ore concentrate. Out of these countries, an average of 483,000 metric tons of Lead is produced yearly. Mines in the U.S. are primarily found in Missouri.

Over the years Lead mining has caused physical and environmental consequences. Physical hazards such as open mine shafts, collapsed mine shafts, and subsidence areas have claimed lives, caused property damage, and created avenues where water enters and leaves the mines. In the early 1980's, the U.S. Bureau identified detailed studies of the physical hazards associated with the old mining areas. The studies identified more than 1,500 open shafts and nearly 500 subsidence collapse features in the Tri-State. One substitute for Lead that has been used as graphite. Lead is also commonly recycled. After World War II, mine production gradually declined until 1970 when the last active mine, located two miles west of Baxter Springs, Kansas, shut down due to environmental and economic problems.

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Cadmium (SaLees Seddon) 

The atomic number of cadmium is 48 and its most abundant isotope, Cd-114, is stable with 66 neutrons. Cadmium has two electrons in the first energy level, eight electrons in the second energy level, eighteen electrons in the third energy level, eighteen electrons in the fourth energy level, and two electrons in the fifth and last energy level. The estimated crustal abundance of Cadmium is 1.5 x 10-1 milligrams per kilogram and there is no evidence of its abundance in the earth's mantle. Most cadmium is produced as a by-product from the extraction of zinc, copper, and lead ores. Cadmium ores are rare and occur associated with zinc ores such as sphalerite (zinc sulphide). Greenockite is the only mineral that contains cadmium.

About sixty percent of cadmium is used in electroplating, which allows other materials to be protected from corrosion. Cadmium is also used for nickel-cadmium batteries, alloys with low coefficients of friction, and cadmium components are used in blue and green phosphorus in color television sets. The current cost of cadmium is about $12 per pound and is available in high purity form.

Cadmium is toxic and most exposure to it occurs in the workplace where cadmium products are made. The general population is exposed by breathing cigarette smoke or eating cadmium contaminated foods since is naturally present in the air, water, soil, and foodstuffs. Cadmium can cause damage to lungs, cause kidney disease, or irritate the digestive track, but its potential risks to human health have been well studied and are now controlled. Also, cadmium emissions into the environment, resulting from its use, have been continually decreasing since the 1960's.

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Aluminum (Tessa Strasser) 

Aluminum is number 13 in the periodic table. In its most abundant isotope, Al-27, it has 14 neutrons. There are three different levels of energy in aluminum, with the electrons spread out through each. There are 2 in the 1st level, 8 in the 2nd level, and 3 in the 3rd level. Aluminum makes up 8 percent of the crust, but it is not really found in the crust. Its crustal abundance is 8.23 x 104 milligrams per kilogram. It is the most abundant metal. Aluminum generally occurs in igneous rocks. It?s found in a lot of gemstones such as rubies, sapphires, topaz and garnet. That?s what these gems are mined for. Aluminum was basically unknown until the 1920s when a scientist named Wohler was able to find a way to isolate aluminum. At this time it was very expensive ($1200 a kilogram). A man named Deville improved the way Wohler isolated aluminum and the price dropped to $40 per kilogram- this was still to expensive to be used. Two men named Hall and Heroult came up with producing aluminum by the electorolis of alumina dissolved in cryolite. This process, along with the Bayer process, made it easy to produce a lot of aluminum cheaply. Right now the price of aluminum is really cheap- $0.60.

Most deposits of bauxite are found in tropical areas like the Caribbean and in Europe. There are four different types of bauxite (blanket, pocket, interlayered, and detrial). Each of these is found in different parts of the world. Blanket deposits are found in West Africa, Australia, South American, and India. Pocket deposits are found in Jamaica and Southern Europe. Interlayered deposits can be found in the US, Brazil, Russia, China, and Hungary. Detrial deposits can be found in Arkansas in the US. The primary producer of the ore would be Australia, which produces about 40 percent of the world?s ore. Brazil, Jamaica, and Guinea are among the top producers as well. About twenty other countries contribute to producing, including the US, but the US?s production is only very minimal right now. To get the bauxite out of the earth, people use open cast mining from the strata. In order to get down there, both topsoil and vegetation are removed. There are very few mines in our country- our sources didn?t really say where though. Most of our aluminum is gotten from other countries.

Aluminum is used in tons of household items, like cooking utensils and containers for soda. It is also used in building materials and paints, as well as medicines like antacids, buffered aspirin, and even in deodorant to fight B.O. So much exposure may not necessarily be a good thing. Aluminum in small doses is fine, but high levels can be quite dangerous. High levels of aluminum in the air often causes respiratory problems like asthma, and the use of aluminum for treating some ailments leads to bone diseases. It has also been suggested that high levels of aluminum in your brain may cause Alzheimer?s.

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Platinum (Travis Tso) 

The element Platinum has an Atomic Number of 78 and an Atomic weight of 195.078 grams. The Electron Structure of Platinum is 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10, 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14, 5s2 5p6 5d9, 6s1 orbitals. The Oxidation state is +2, +4. The number of Neutrons in the most Common isotope of Platinum is 117. Platinum is most abundant in the Earths Mantle when mixed with other alloys: (gold, nickel, copper, palladium, and iridium). Platinum is found in such ores as platinum/iridium ores and sperrylite (Platinum Arsenide) and cooperite (platinum sulphide).

The extent of mining of Platinum is made at most in an open pit but some of the time it is made underground. There are mines in the United States (Stillwater, Montana), Canada (Sudbury, Ontario and Raglan, Quebec), and in Russia in the Ural region. Mining of Platinum also has an Environmental effect on those mining it including in Miners cases of inhalation, eye/skin exposure, and ingestion of particles have been linked to Emphysema, Cancer (Skin, Lung, and Esophageal), and Asthma. The recommended inhalation level of Platinum outlines by OSHA is (1mg/m cubed). In the past few years Platinum has risen in production because its elasticity to electronic products that have risen in popularity in the past few years.

Platinum is used in many products including electronic, medical, and glamour. The main electronic products it's used in is: wiring, the manufacturing of Sulfuric acid, and catalytic converters for automobiles because when divided it's a great chemical catalyst. Medically Platinum is beneficial for Dental fillings, pacemakers, replacement valves, and Carboplatin is beneficial in the treatment of leukemia and testicular cancer. Glamourly it's used in jewelry, lighter holders, and to make hand warmers of fake fur.

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Molybdenum (Kate Tullar) 

Molybdenum can be found all over the world, including Chile, Peru, Russia, Kazakhstan, and China. More locally, 64% of all molybdenum is mined in Colorado, Arizona, and British Columbia. Molybdenum is frequently mined as a by product of copper in either primary (40%) of complex (60%) deposits. The presence of molybdenum just below the earth?s surface provides many people with jobs and encourages the manufacture of mining supplies by large companies. Beyond mining, molybdenum is a crucial part of the world economy. People rely on molybdenum to create the toughness of steel, for refining petroleum for use in cars and homes, advances in electronics (from electric can openers to automobiles), and the manufacture of missiles and aircrafts. Since molybdenum is so abundant, it is only natural that it is found in many food sources, particularly vegetables that reap their nutrients from the earth?s surface. Molybdenum can be found in legumes, nutritious cereals, and even in tap water. People need molybdenum in their diets. Some people do not take in enough molybdenum. Others (very rarely) experience toxicity, which interferes with the body?s absorption of copper (a vital mineral in nutrition), and causes people to experience nausea, diarrhea, and ?gout-like? symptoms. Nutritionists generally believe that people should not consume more than 15 milligrams each day. Molybdenum in critical to the world?s population in many ways, and its presence in the earth?s surface is critical, from the world economy and to individuals living comfortably at home. People do not see or think about molybdenum every day, but it certainly affects people in some small way on a daily basis.

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Tin (Michael Wanek) 

Tin is the 50th element on the periodic table, which means it has 50 protons. Its atomic weight is 118.71, and its most common isotope has 69 neutrons. The electron configuration is 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2p2 , and the electrons per each energy level are as follows: 2, 8, 18, 18, 4. The symbol for tin, Sn, comes from the Latin name of stannum. Tin has been known to humans since before recorded time, so no real discovery date or time period exists. On Earth, tin is primarily found in the ore cassiterite, which is SnO2 . Tin has been mined in many places around the world, but the most popular location by far is Cornwall, in Britain. It has been mined from this area for thousands of years, although recently production has slowed. The 1870's were very productive years for Cornwall, when they produced over 10,000 tons. This was about half of the total yield for the entire world, at the time. Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China are the other important world leaders in tin production. Also important to note is that most of the world's tin production comes from placer deposits, as opposed to hard rock tin deposits. Tin is used in various products, but rarely is it used in it's absolutely pure form. Its chloride is used as a reducing agent; tin oxide is used in various glass products (as either a surface film or as electrodes for heating molten glass); tin oxide is also used as an opacifier in ceramic glazes; tin is even compounded with fluorine in toothpaste to help prevent tooth decay. Although the uses for tin are numerous, there are also some health risks associated with the metal. Should humans be exposed to tin bonds, whether it be through the lungs or through the skin, negative side effects can occur. The effects range from stomach and headaches all the way to severe brain damage, tin can definitely be dangerous.

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Zinc (Erika Smith) 

The most abundant isotope of the element zinc (Zn) is Zn64. This isotope has an atomic number of 30, with an approximate atomic weight of 64. The electron structure of zinc is as follows: 2 electrons in the K shell, 2 s-electrons and 6 p-electrons in the L shell, 2 s-electrons, 6 p-electrons, and 10 d-electrons in the M shell, and 2 s-electrons in the N shell. The abundance of zinc in the Earth’s crust can be found in the black arc basin, the outer arc basin, and finally in the midocean ridge. Also, the relative abundance of zinc in the Earth’s crust is approximately 132 ppm.

Zinc ores are generally found in association with those of lead, copper, silver, and other metals. When mined, zinc ores are seldom rich enough to be used directly by smelters and instead first need to be concentrated. In fact, zinc ores only contain around 10% zinc, but zinc concentrates contain about 55% zinc. Zinc is mined using underground mining, which accounts for 80% of zinc mines, and also open-pit mining, which accounts for 8% of zinc mines. The remainder is mined through using a combination of those two methods. In 2001, 9,136,700 tonnes per annum of zinc were produced. Among metals, this production total was enough for zinc to receive a 3rd place production rating. Zinc is mined all over the globe, but the leaders in production are the U.S.A, Peru, Canada, China, and Australia. Currently the price of zinc is $.95/kg.

Zinc is used in a variety of products and is the 4th most common metal in use. It is used in the production of anti-corrosion coatings on steel (especially in the automobile industry), die castings, construction material, brass, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and as a micronutrient for humans, animals and plants. Most notably is zincs frequent use in multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Also, it is a common component in cold remedies such as throat lozenges; however, zinc intake has been questioned on whether or not it actually can help cure the common cold. Some health problems associated with zinc consist of “zinc chills” and “zinc shakes.” These two problems are caused by over exposure to zinc oxide. Another negative effect of zinc occurs when it is taken excessively as a supplement. This can actually lead to deficiencies in other minerals our bodies need.

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Mercury (Yinan Wu) 

Mercury, a liquid element during room temperature, is a transition element with an atomic number of 80. The most common isotope of Mercury has an atomic mass of 202. The electron shell of Mercury is arranged as follows: 2 in the first shell, 8 in the second, 18 in the third, 32 in the fourth, 18 in the fifth, and 2 in the sixth shell. Mercury is one of the rarer elements on the planet Earth, being 67th in abundance in the crust and none or little in the mantle and core (no article mentioned mercury as being present in the mantle and core).

The primary source of Mercury for human use is from the ore Cinnabar, made up of Mercuric sulfide, or HgS. ( Mercury can be extracted from Cinnabar by breaking down the ore through heat. Mercury can also be found with other metals, such as silver, but extracting the element from these sources is uncommon or unheard of. The two leading Mercury producing/extracting nations are Spain and China, with the Spanish mined ores containing a much higher percentage of Mercury abundance.

Mercury is used in many household and scientific instruments, the most common of which is the thermometer. Mercury works well in the thermometer because its change in volume varies in an almost linear fashion with a change in temperature, thereby being an accurate measure of temperature change. Other examples of items that use mercury are barometers and vacuum pumps. Mercury can pose an environmental hazard because it is a toxic element that destroys human nerves. The element in its vaporous form is much more deadly because it is easier for the human body to absorb. Exposure to Mercury can cause effects such as vomiting, stomach aches, and in severe cases, brain, liver damage, and death. Methylmercury, an organic form of Mercury, can often be found in the food chain (most often in fish) and pose the most dangerous threat to humans, because it is difficult to prevent or detect (ordinary cooking methods do not decontaminate fish with methylmercury).

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